Turbulence is created as water passes through, over, and around the coffee grinds. Turbulence allows the particle clumps to separate to allow for maximum surface area of the coffee to come into contact with the coffee. For drip brewing, the turbulence is created by the release of the water. For pour overs, the turbulence is created by keeping the coffee-pot spout in continuous motion. If the dripping/pouring is too slow, there will be inconsistency. The grounds in the middle of the coffee bed will be wet and over-saturated and the coffee on the outside will be dry and under-extracted.


For pour-overs, keep the coffee-pot spout moving in slow concentric circles to ensure consistent wetting of the coffee bed. The goal is to have as much of the coffee come into contact with the water as possible. When the hot water is first introduced to the coffee, some grinds will float to the top due to the gasses being released. For this reason, it is important to stir the coffee bed gently (just once is sufficient) to submerge the crust. At the end of the coffee extraction, the coffee beverage will remain in the vessel. Since the extraction quality will vary between the first minute and the last, simply stir the coffee in the vessel before serving.

For the French Press, place the grounds in the device and add twice as much water as coffee. Allow the coffee to steep for 30 seconds with the cap and plunger in place to keep the coffee hot. After 30 seconds, add the remaining water, stir gently for a few seconds and press the plunger gently so that any floating coffee is submerged. After waiting for another 3 and a half minutes, depress the plunger to the bottom and immediately serve from the French Press with the plunger all the way down. The device will filter out the grinds however there will be some liquid remaining in the press - do not pour all of the liquid into your cup since you will get sediment which will alter the taste. Do not let the coffee sit in the press as this will cause it to continue brewing and over-extract.